Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracFastCgi


Ignore:
Timestamp:
09/24/2015 10:22:29 PM (2 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

--

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  • TracFastCgi

    v2 v3  
    1 [[PageOutline]]
    2 
    3 = Trac with FastCGI =
    4 
    5 [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request.  Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
    6 
    7 Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], i.e. run with different permissions than web server running with (`mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect).
     1= Trac with FastCGI
     2
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
     5
     6[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. Additionally, it is supported by a much wider variety of web servers.
     7
     8Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], ie run with different permissions than the web server runs with. `mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect.
    89
    910'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]/[trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp ISAPI].
    1011
    11 [[PageOutline(2-3,Overview,inline)]]
    12 
    13 
    14 == Simple Apache configuration ==
    15 
    16 There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
    17 `mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
     12== Apache configuration
     13
     14There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and `mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
    1815
    1916The following sections focus on the FCGI specific setup, see also [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] for configuring the authentication in Apache.
    2017
    21 Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done. (Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server)
    22 
    23 === Set up with `mod_fastcgi` ===
     18Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done: `Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server`.
     19
     20=== Set up with `mod_fastcgi`
     21
    2422`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
    25 {{{
     23{{{#!apache
    2624# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
    2725# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
     
    3331LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so
    3432}}}
     33
    3534Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
    3635
    37 Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but
    38 calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
     36Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
    3937
    4038Add the following to the Apache configuration file (below the `FastCgiIpcDir` line) if you intend to set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
    41 {{{
     39{{{#!apache
    4240FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
    4341}}}
    4442
    4543Alternatively, you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory by adding this:
    46 {{{
     44{{{#!apache
    4745FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
    4846}}}
    4947
    50 === Set up with `mod_fcgid` ===
    51 Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi`
    52 instead of `trac.cgi`. Note that slash at the end - it is important.
    53 {{{
     48=== Set up with `mod_fcgid`
     49
     50Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`:
     51{{{#!apache
    5452ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    5553}}}
    5654
    57 To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use
    58 `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or
    59 `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try
    60 alternative environment setup below.
    61 
    62 {{{
     55Note the slash at the end.
     56
     57To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try the alternative environment setup below:
     58{{{#!apache
    6359DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
    6460}}}
    6561
    66 === alternative environment setup ===
    67 A better method to specify path to Trac environment is to embed the path
    68 into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of server
    69 environment variables, works for both FastCgi modules
    70 (and for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well):
    71 {{{
     62=== Alternative environment setup
     63
     64A better method to specify the path to the Trac environment is to embed the path into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of the server environment variables, works for both [trac:FastCgi] modules as well as for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI:
     65{{{#!python
    7266import os
    7367os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
    7468}}}
    75 or
    76 {{{
     69
     70or:
     71{{{#!python
    7772import os
    7873os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
    7974}}}
    8075
    81 With this method different projects can be supported by using different
    82 `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
     76With this method different projects can be supported by using different `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
    8377
    8478See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
    85 {{{
     79{{{#!apache
    8680ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    8781}}}
    8882
    89 == Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
    90 
    91 The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
    92 You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
    93 First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter.
     83== Cherokee Configuration
     84
     85Configuring [http://cherokee-project.com/ Cherokee] with Trac is straightforward, if you spawn Trac as an SCGI process. You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
     86
     87First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter:
    9488
    9589{{{
     
    10498
    10599After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
    106 The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local trac resources).
    107 
    108 Note:\\
    109 If the tracd process fails to start up, and cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package.\\
    110 Python-flup is a dependency which provides trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on debian based systems with:
    111 {{{
     100The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local Trac resources).
     101
     102'''Note:''' If the tracd process fails to start up, and Cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package ([trac:#9903]). Python-flup is a dependency which provides Trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on Debian based systems with:
     103{{{#!sh
    112104sudo apt-get install python-flup
    113105}}}
    114106
    115 
    116 == Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
    117 
    118 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
    119 
    120 lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
    121 environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
    122 
    123 For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     107== Lighttpd Configuration
     108
     109The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ Lighttpd].
     110
     111Lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance environments. It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     112
     113For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with Lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
    124114{{{
    125115#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     
    138128}}}
    139129
    140 Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
    141 and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
    142 using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
    143 
    144 Note that lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in lighttpd 1.5, and under lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
     130Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` using `bin-environment`, as in the section above on Apache configuration.
     131
     132Note that Lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in Lighttpd 1.5, and under Lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
    145133
    146134For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     
    166154                )
    167155}}}
    168 Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
    169 variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
    170 `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
    171 Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
    172 if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
    173 
    174 {{{
    175 #!div class=important
    176 '''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
     156
     157Note that the field values are different. If you prefer setting the environment variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, eg to `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     158Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     159
     160{{{#!div class=important
     161'''Note:''' The order in which the server.modules are loaded is very important: if mod_auth is not loaded '''before''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
    177162}}}
    178163
     
    213198               )
    214199
    215 
    216 }}}
    217 Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
    218 
    219 Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
    220 
    221 Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     200}}}
     201
     202Note that Lighttpd (v1.4.3) stops if the password file doesn't exist.
     203
     204Note that Lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     205
     206Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, ie serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
    222207{{{
    223208# Aliasing functionality is needed
     
    243228}
    244229}}}
     230
    245231The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
    246 Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
     232
     233Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it uses `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` instead of `TRAC_ENV` as well as global authentication:
    247234{{{
    248235#  This is for handling multiple projects
     
    274261}}}
    275262
    276 Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
     263Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME:
    277264{{{
    278265fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     
    288275                 )
    289276}}}
     277
    290278For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
    291279
    292280Other important information like the [wiki:TracInstall#MappingStaticResources mapping static resources advices] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
    293 ]
    294 
    295 Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
    296 
    297 Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
    298 
    299 If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
    300 
    301 
    302 == Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
     281
     282Relaunch Lighttpd and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     283
     284Note about running Lighttpd with reduced permissions: If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with Lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     285
     286== !LiteSpeed Configuration
    303287
    304288The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     
    306290!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
    307291
    308  1. Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
    309 
    310  2. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
    311 
     292 1. Please make sure you have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with "tracd" first.
     293 1. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your Trac project will be accessible via:
    312294{{{
    313295http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    314296}}}
    315 
    316  3. Go “!TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
    317 
     297 1. Go "!TracVhost → External Apps" tab and create a new "External Application":
    318298{{{
    319299Name: MyTracFCGI       
     
    331311Instances: 10
    332312}}}
    333 
    334  4. Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “!TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
    335 
    336 {{{
     313 1. Optional: If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to "!TracVhost → Security" tab and create a new security Realm:
     314 {{{
    337315DB Type: Password File
    338316Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
    339317User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
    340318}}}
    341 
    342 If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
    343 
    344  5. Go to “!PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
    345 
    346 {{{
     319 If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
     320 1. Go to "!PythonVhost → Contexts" and create a new FCGI Context:
     321 {{{
    347322URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
    348 Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created
     323Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the Trac fcgi extapp we just created
    349324Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
    350325}}}
    351 
    352  6. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`
    353 
    354 {{{
     326 1. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`:
     327 {{{
    355328#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
    356329base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
     
    358331link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
    359332}}}
    360 
    361  7. Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
    362 
    363 {{{
    364 http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    365 }}}
    366 
    367 
    368 == Simple Nginx Configuration ==
    369 
    370 Nginx is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
     333 1. Restart !LiteSpeed: `lswsctrl restart`, and access your new Trac project at {{{http://yourdomain.com/trac/}}}.
     334
     335== Nginx Configuration
     336
     337[http://nginx.org/en/ Nginx] is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
    371338
    372339 1. Nginx configuration with basic authentication handled by Nginx - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
    373 {{{
     340 {{{#!nginx
    374341    server {
    375342        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     
    386353        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
    387354
    388         # (Or ``^/some/prefix/(.*)``.
    389         if ($uri ~ ^/(.*)) {
    390              set $path_info /$1;
     355        # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx (or ``~ [/some/prefix]/chrome/(.*)``)
     356        location ~ /chrome/(.*) {
     357             alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/$1;
    391358        }
    392359
    393         # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx
    394         location /chrome/ {
    395              alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/;
    396         }
    397 
    398         # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix]/login``
     360        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix](/login)``
    399361        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
    400362        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
    401363        # for accessing the whole site.
    402         # (Or ``location /some/prefix``.)
    403         location / {
     364        # (Or ``~ location /some/prefix(/.*)``.)
     365        location ~ (/.*) {
    404366            auth_basic            "trac realm";
    405367            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     
    415377            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
    416378            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
    417             fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
     379            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $1;
    418380
    419381            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     
    438400    }
    439401}}}
    440 
    441  2. Modified trac.fcgi:
    442 
    443 {{{
     402 1. Modified trac.fcgi:
     403 {{{#!python
    444404#!/usr/bin/env python
    445405import os
     
    472432
    473433}}}
    474 
    475  3. reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
    476 
    477 {{{
     434 1. Reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi:
     435 {{{#!sh
    478436trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
    479437}}}
    480438
    481439The above assumes that:
    482  * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
    483  * `/home/trac/instance` contains a trac environment
     440 * There is a user named 'trac' for running Trac instances and keeping Trac environments in its home directory
     441 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a Trac environment
    484442 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
    485  * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
     443 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the Nginx runs under
    486444  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
    487   * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
    488 
    489 Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
    490 Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
    491 
    492 If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
    493 
    494 Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
     445  * and patch from [trac:#7239] is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
     446
     447Unfortunately Nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
     448Thus it is not possible to serve multiple Trac instances from one server block.
     449
     450If you worry enough about security, run Trac instances under separate users.
     451
     452Another way to run Trac as a FCGI external application is offered in [trac:#6224].
    495453
    496454----
    497 See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]
     455See also: TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]