The previous example had a Resource that generates its response asynchronously rather than immediately upon the call to its render method. Though it was a useful demonstration of the NOT_DONE_YET feature of Twisted Web, the example didn’t reflect what a realistic application might want to do. This example introduces Deferred , the Twisted class which is used to provide a uniform interface to many asynchronous events, and shows you an example of using a Deferred -returning API to generate an asynchronous response to a request in Twisted Web.
Deferred is the result of two consequences of the asynchronous programming approach. First, asynchronous code is frequently (if not always) concerned with some data (in Python, an object) which is not yet available but which probably will be soon. Asynchronous code needs a way to define what will be done to the object once it does exist. It also needs a way to define how to handle errors in the creation or acquisition of that object. These two needs are satisfied by the callbacks and errbacks of a Deferred . Callbacks are added to a Deferred with Deferred.addCallback ; errbacks are added with Deferred.addErrback . When the object finally does exist, it is passed to Deferred.callback which passes it on to the callback added with addCallback . Similarly, if an error occurs, Deferred.errback is called and the error is passed along to the errback added with addErrback . Second, the events that make asynchronous code actually work often take many different, incompatible forms. Deferred acts as the uniform interface which lets different parts of an asynchronous application interact and isolates them from implementation details they shouldn’t be concerned with.
That’s almost all there is to Deferred . To solidify your new understanding, now consider this rewritten version of DelayedResource which uses a Deferred -based delay API. It does exactly the same thing as the previous example . Only the implementation is different.
First, the example must import that new API that was just mentioned, deferLater :
from twisted.internet.task import deferLater
Next, all the other imports (these are the same as last time):
from twisted.web.resource import Resource from twisted.web.server import NOT_DONE_YET from twisted.internet import reactor
With the imports done, here’s the first part of the DelayedResource implementation. Again, this part of the code is identical to the previous version:
class DelayedResource(Resource): def _delayedRender(self, request): request.write("<html><body>Sorry to keep you waiting.</body></html>") request.finish()
Next we need to define the render method. Here’s where things change a bit. Instead of using callLater , We’re going to use deferLater this time. deferLater accepts a reactor, delay (in seconds, as with callLater ), and a function to call after the delay to produce that elusive object discussed in the description of Deferred s. We’re also going to use _delayedRender as the callback to add to the Deferred returned by deferLater . Since it expects the request object as an argument, we’re going to set up the deferLater call to return a Deferred which has the request object as its result.
... def render_GET(self, request): d = deferLater(reactor, 5, lambda: request)
The Deferred referenced by d now needs to have the _delayedRender callback added to it. Once this is done, _delayedRender will be called with the result of d (which will be request , of course — the result of (lambda: request)() ).
Finally, the render method still needs to return NOT_DONE_YET , for exactly the same reasons as it did in the previous version of the example.
... return NOT_DONE_YET
And with that, DelayedResource is now implemented based on a Deferred . The example still isn’t very realistic, but remember that since Deferred s offer a uniform interface to many different asynchronous event sources, this code now resembles a real application even more closely; you could easily replace deferLater with another Deferred -returning API and suddenly you might have a resource that does something useful.
Finally, here’s the complete, uninterrupted example source, as an rpy script:
from twisted.internet.task import deferLater from twisted.web.resource import Resource from twisted.web.server import NOT_DONE_YET from twisted.internet import reactor class DelayedResource(Resource): def _delayedRender(self, request): request.write("<html><body>Sorry to keep you waiting.</body></html>") request.finish() def render_GET(self, request): d = deferLater(reactor, 5, lambda: request) d.addCallback(self._delayedRender) return NOT_DONE_YET resource = DelayedResource()